Windows 10 and FAT32

Recently, I needed to format a thumb drive to FAT32 in Windows 10 (adding the BleemSync hack to the Sony PlayStation Classic). I could swear the last time I had to do this, the option was there. Today the only options were exFAT and NTFS. Ugh. Windows! Well, I found a nice free tool that allows you to perform this task: Ridgecrop Consultant’s FAT32 utility. Once you visit their site, click on the picture to download the utility.

There’s another option. You can type ‘cmd’ where it says “Type here to search” from the Windows 10 menu. Once the command terminal is open, type (replacing “X” with the drive letter):

Format /FS:FAT32 X:

This method will likely take hours to format the drive.

Ubuntu Server: Configure the firewall with “ufw”

Ubuntu Server’s firewall is called ufw. If you are running an Ubuntu Server, you definitely want to enable some kind of firewall to keep intruders out of your ports. They likely will perform a port scan and try to find weaknesses. You can prevent this by enabling ufw and then configuring it to open ports that need access and close ones that don’t.

Enable ufw:

sudo ufw enable

Check ufw status:

sudo ufw status

Allow a service to run (example: ftp, telnet, ssh, http):

sudo ufw allow http

Open a port:

sudo ufw allow 22

Close a port:

sudo ufw deny 22

Open a range of ports and specify TCP or UDP:

sudo ufw allow 300:310/tcp

Close a range of ports and specify TCP or UDP:

sudo ufw deny 300:310/tcp

Delete a service:

sudo ufw status numbered
#creates a numbered list of services, example:

[ 1] 21/tcp                     ALLOW IN    Anywhere                  
[ 2] 22/tcp                     ALLOW IN    Anywhere                  
[ 3] 80/tcp                     ALLOW IN    Anywhere     

sudo ufw delete 3
#replace 3 with the service you want to delete

List applications that ufw can open service for:

sudo ufw app list
#will generate a list similar to this:
Available applications:
  Apache
  Apache Full
  Apache Secure
  CUPS
  OpenSSH
  plexmediaserver
  plexmediaserver-all
  plexmediaserver-dlna

Enable an application such as Apache. This is extremely important for a WordPress installation!

sudo ufw allow in "Apache Full"

Disable ufw:

sudo ufw disable

If you somehow screwed your ufw permissions up, you can reset them all. If you are configuring with SSH, make sure to enable your SSH service before re-enabling ufw!

sudo ufw reset

Hopefully, you have configured all of your services appropriately and have a good working firewall. If somehow this exercise is messing your server up, you can always disable it with “sudo ufw disable” until you can get more help or have more time to experiment. Happy and safe computing!

Static IP address for Ubuntu Server 18.04 “netplan”

If you are using Ubuntu Server version 18.04 LTS and want to configure a static IP address, the procedure has changed for network interface configuration.

We used to configure /etc/network/interfaces but now the system uses something called netplan. If you try to configure the old “interfaces” file, it will point you to this new netplan network configuration.

Here’s how we change the network interface to use a static IP address. Edit “50-cloud-init.yaml“, replacing the text with the text below. Replace the IP address with your own (192.168.1.100 used as an example) and then save:

sudo nano /etc/netplan/50-cloud-init.yaml
# This file is generated from information provided by
# the datasource.  Changes to it will not persist across an instance.
# To disable cloud-init's network configuration capabilities, write a file
# /etc/cloud/cloud.cfg.d/99-disable-network-config.cfg with the following:
# network: {config: disabled}
network:
    ethernets:
        enp0s3:
            addresses: [192.168.1.100/24]
            gateway4: 192.168.1.1
            nameservers:
              addresses: [8.8.8.8,8.8.4.4]
            dhcp4: no
    version: 2

Apply the changes and then reboot.

sudo netplan apply
sudo reboot